Legislation Archives Reports

California is unusual compared with the rest of the nation in that the majority of mallards that are harvested here hatched here, rather than coming from the “Duck Factory” Prairie Pothole Region of the central United States and Canada.

In addition, our ducks don’t tend to leave in the winter: According to research, 96% of mallards that hatch here are harvested here. Oregon gets 3%.

Our breeding population of mallards used to be much stronger, but after plunging during the recent drought, it has failed to rebound. Several major factors are holding it back, and all are about habitat:

  • The Sacramento Valley has experienced a substantial loss of breeding habitat, fueled in part by significant changes in agricultural practices.
  • Water is being deliberately withheld from the Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge, which has become a crisis. Lower Klamath – when it has water – is not only a significant breeding area, but also a molting area, which is critical for California’s mallards.
  • Water diversion measurement requirements and mosquito abatement limit the availability of summer brood water in many parts of the state.
  • New groundwater restrictions are likely to exacerbate problems with summer brood water going forward.

California Waterfowl convened a mallard summit on Aug. 3, 2019, bringing together representatives of a variety of governmental and non-governmental agencies to discuss the issues affecting mallard populations. (Click here for a copy of Powerpoint presentations – warning: 253MB.)

CWA is working to address this problem on multiple fronts:

  • Our regional biologists develop breeding habitat on both public and private lands. Contact them if you’d like help with a wetland that you manage.
  • Our advocacy team fights for funding to improve breeding habitat.
  • Our waterfowl program staff:
    —Created this handy guide to improving breeding habitat.
    Bands ducks for research.
    —Is developing an incentive program for farmers to delay harvest of winter wheat crops to give mallard nests time to hatch.
  • Our Egg Salvage Program works with wildlife-friendly farmers to salvage duck nests from their fields prior to normal farming operations that might destroy nests.

Would reducing mallard limits solve the problem? No. Click here to learn why.

Want to support our efforts? Please donate!


Population survey: Mallards need more than water to rebound (California Waterfowl, Fall 2019)

CRITICAL HUB: LKNWR (Infographic PDF) (California Waterfowl, Fall 2019)

FAQ: California’s waterfowl breeding population survey (Aug. 26, 2019)

CWA Mallard Meeting powerpoints (Warning: 253MB!) (Aug. 3, 2019)

Sources of California mallards – Mallard Meeting poster at 8.5×11 – PDF (Aug. 3, 2019)

Mallard breeding population down this year (June 28, 2019)

Funding for duck clubs: After 15 years, the Presley Program is back! (California Waterfowl, Summer 2019)

Want more mallards? Do something about it! (California Waterfowl, Winter 2017)

Populations and harvest (infographic PDF, 3.6 MB) (California Waterfowl, Winter 2017)

Press release: Pesticide alternatives for wetland mosquito abatement (Oct. 5, 2017)


Assessing changes in genomic divergence following a century of human-mediated secondary contact among wild and captive-bred ducks (PDF) (December 2019)

2020 Adaptive Harvest Management (PDF) (establishes 2020-21 regulatory framework)

2019 Adaptive Harvest Management (PDF) (establishes 2019-20 regulatory framework)

2019 California Waterfowl Breeding Population Survey Report

Waterfowl Population Status, 2019 (continental breeding population survey)

Migratory bird hunting activity and harvest during the 2017-18 and 2018-19 hunting seasons, August 2019 (continental harvest survey)

Distribution and derivation of dabbling duck harvests in the Pacific Flyway (2017) by Cristina N. de Sobrino, Cliff L. Feldheim, and Todd W. Arnold

California mallards: a review. (2018) by Cliff L. Feldheim, Joshua T. Ackerman, Shaun L. Oldenburger, John M. Eadie, Joseph P. Fleskes, And Gregory S. Yarris



Wildlife-friendly agriculture
SB 253 (Bill Dodd, D-Napa): Would establish an incentive-based conservation program at the California Department of Food and Agriculture and require the program to optimize wildlife habitat benefits while supporting the economic viability of California agriculture by providing incentives and technical assistance to farmers and ranchers. Click here to read our coalition letter of support (PDF).

Funding to purchase wildlands
SB 474 (Henry Stern, D-Canoga Park): Would would extend the sunset date on the Habitat Conservation Fund, which annually transfers $30 million to various natural resource entities, including the Wildlife Conservation Board, to purchase wildlands for the public, establish conservation easements on private land and enhance the habitat values of existing public lands. The Habitat Conservation Fund has put nearly $420 million into more than 800 projects statewide, including land purchases, easements and improvements. CWA has done work with these funds in 19 counties from Siskiyou to Imperial. Huntable public lands that have benefited from the fund include the Ash Creek, Gray Lodge, Yolo Bypass, Grizzly Island, North Grasslands, Mendota and San Jacinto wildlife areas. Click here to read a conservation coalition letter of support (PDF). Update: This legislation was incorporated into the state budget, so this funding has been extended for 10 years.


Nesting habitat incentive – passed and signed by governor
AB 2697 (Gallagher, R-Yuba City): This CWA-sponsored bill created a waterfowl and upland game bird Nesting Bird Habitat Incentive Program for farmers who wish to fallow a portion of their land. View our letter (PDF) here. CWA is is currently working with the Legislature to secure funding for the program.

Proposition 68 – passed by voters
Prop. 68 included $10 million for the Presley Program, which provides incentive funding to improve wetland management on private wetlands and prioritizes properties with breeding habitat. California Waterfowl played a significant role in getting the Presley funding into the initiative. Voters passed the initiative 57% to 43%.

Federal Farm Bill – passed and signed into law
The 2018 Farm Bill provides significant funding for a number of conservation programs, including:

  • The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), which provides farmers financial assistance to implement a variety of conservation practices. This program could help support the Nesting Bird Habitat Incentive Program, which was created in 2018 through a CWA-sponsored bill (AB 2697 by James Gallagher, R-Yuba City) to create and enhance nesting habitat for mallards and pheasants on fallowed lands.
  • The Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP), which fosters partnerships with farmers, state agencies and nonprofit groups to implement conservation initiatives. RCPP could also help support California’s Nesting Bird Habitat Incentive Program.
  • The Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP) supports the former Wetlands Reserve Program, which is used by many duck clubs that choose to protect their wetlands in perpetuity.

View our letter (PDF) here.


Pesticide alternatives – passed and signed into law
AB 718 (Frazier, D-Discovery Bay): aims to reduce mosquito spraying costs to private landowners. View our letter (PDF) here, and our press release here.

See the latest updates on the impact of COVID-19 on CWA events and operations